Remote Sensing - Spectral Imaging

 

Remote Sensing of Range (Distance, Position) and Velocity

 

RADAR

LIDAR

SONAR

 

 

Remote Sensing of Magnetic Fields - Remote Optical Magnetometry - Magneto-Optical Phenomena

 

Faraday effect (rotation)

A magnetic field rotates the polarization of light proportionally to magnetic field strength.

  Surface Magneto-Optic         Kerr Effect (SMOKE)

Light reflected from a magnetized surface (object) can change in polarization and intensity.

Zeeman effect spectroscopy

A magnetic field splits spectral lines in a manner that is dependent on the strength of the magnetic field.

Measurement of the magnetic field of the Sun and other stars, the Earth and plasmas.

Magnetographs based on light analysis.

Laser/LIDAR Magnetometry (Laser Guide Star tech - LGS) Larmor precession frequency interrogation

Magnetic field strength is proportional to  Larmor frequency (precession frequency). By measuring the Larmor frequency of atoms, we can determine the magnetic field in which the atoms are immersed.

Measurement of the Earth's magnetic field with atoms and light.

 

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Sensing

 

Sensing of Electric Fields - Electrometry 

Sensing of the electric component of electromagnetic fields

 

Magnetic Resonance Current Density Imaging (MRCDI)

Current density imaging with Magnetic Resonance (MR)

(MR-based Magnetometry)

 

AC Stark effect or Autler–Townes effect

Splitting/spacing of spectral lines proportional to electric field amplitude
Atomic spectroscopy and
Electromagnetically Induced Transparency (EIT)

Atomic radio / antenna

 

Sensing Magnetic and Electric fields, Motion/Acceleration/Rotation with Atom Interferometers

 

Atom interferometers

Atoms interferometers and phase lags 

 

 

Human Remote Sensing - Human Spectral Imaging

 

Thermal Sensing - Long-Wave Infrared (LWIR)

Hyperpectral imaging - Wikipedia

 

 

Thermal Sensing - Long-Wave Infrared (LWIR)

Infrared - Wikipedia 

 

 

Doppler RADAR Sensing of Human Gait (cf. walking)

ref. p.20 

 

 

 

 

 

Medical or Physiological Monitoring (Sensing) - Physiological Spectral Imaging

Physiological Monitoring (Sensing) includes Remote Physiological Monitoring (Sensing) performed with non-contact remote techniques which use physiological monitoring RADAR systems.

 

 

Remote Cardiorespiratory Monitoring (Sensing) with RADAR

Doppler RADAR

Chip Transceiver (Emitter and Receiver)

(Droitcour A.D. dissertation - Stanford)

 

 

FMCW RADAR

Horn antenna - Katabi MIT lab "EQ-Radio"

RADAR approach combined with algorithms for emotion detection

 

 

FMCW/Homodyne RADAR

Parabolic antenna (dish) - RADAR cardiogram at 15 ft

Remote Vital Sign Monitor (RVSM) for Olympic athletes (Atlanta Olympics1996) 

 

 

 

 

Remote Cardiac Monitoring (Sensing) and Remote Cardiac Biometrics with LIDAR

 

Laser Doppler vibrometry

MIT Tech Review: "The Pentagon has a laser that can identify people from a distance—by their heartbeat". Details

 

 

 

 

Neural Monitoring (Neural Sensing) 

 

Electroencephalography

(EEG)

 

 

Magnetoencephalography with SQUID magnetometers 

Superconducting magnetometers

 

Magnetoencephalography with optical/atomic magnetometers

SERF magnetometers

(structural) MRI - Magnetic Resonance Imaging

 

 

functional MRI (fMRI)

 

 

functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Imaging (fNIRS)

 

 

Magnetic Resonance - Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

 

Magnetic Resonance: A magnetic field splits spin energetic levels and induces spin precession. Energy transitions under conditions of Magnetic Resonance.

MRI: Polarization

A magnetic field induces spin polarization and a net magnetization

MRI: Detection

An RF tips the magnetization with energy absorption. During magnetization decay a signal (FID) is emitted.

MRI: Polarization enhancement techniques

MRI: Detection RF pulse design

Inducing a Steady State Magnetization providing a continuously emitted signal from the subject