Reading Notes from the book:
Kandel, Eric; Schwartz, James; Jessell, Thomas; Siegelbaum, Steven; Hudspeth, A.J. (2012-09-27). Principles of Neural Science, Fifth Edition. McGraw-Hill. Kindle Edition. (Kindle Location 11269)
The brain consists of:
1.1 Brain Stem (midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata)
1.3 Diencephalon (two major divisions: thalamus and hypothalamus).
1.4 Cerebrum (Telencephalon)
a. cerebral cortex (outer layer made of dark matter)
b. underlying white matter,
c. three deep-lying structures:
i. the basal ganglia (Consist of five functional subcomponents: the caudate nucleus, putamen, globus pallidus, subthalamic nucleus, and substantia nigra)
iii. hippocampal formation.
Brain Atlas http://www.finr.net/files/brain/index.htm
The pons contains nuclei that relay signals from the forebrain to the cerebellum, along with nuclei that deal primarily with sleep, respiration, swallowing, bladder control, hearing, equilibrium, taste, eye movement, facial expressions, facial sensation, and posture.
Specifically, the midbrain consists of:
Dopamine produced in the substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area plays a role in motivation and habituation of species from humans to the most elementary animals such as insects. Laboratory house mice from lines that have been selectively bred for high voluntary wheel running have enlarged midbrains. The midbrain helps to relay information for vision and hearing.
Damage to the dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra is releated to the motor problems in Parkinson's disease (Kandel et al 2012).
The cerebellum (Latin for "little brain") is a region of the brain that plays an important role in motor control. It may also be involved in some cognitive functions such as attention and language, and in regulating fear and pleasure responses, but its movement-related functions are the most solidly established.
The cerebellum does not initiate movement, but it contributes to coordination, precision, and accurate timing. It receives input from sensory systems of the spinal cord and from other parts of the brain, and integrates these inputs to fine-tune motor activity. Cerebellar damage produces disorders in fine movement, equilibrium, posture, and motor learning.
It is associated with the pituitary gland (hypophysis) and the pineal gland (epiphysis).
The Optic Nerve (CNII) attaches to the diencephalon.
The hypothalamus performs numerous vital functions, most of which relating directly or indirectly to the regulation of visceral activities by way of other brain regions and the autonomic nervous system.
Every sensory system (with the exception of the olfactory system) includes a thalamic nucleus that receives sensory signals and sends them to the associated primary cortical area.
Motor relay; From basal ganglia and cerebellum to the cortical motor areas
"Thalamus" by Madhero88 - Own work by uploader, sources       . Licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 via Commons -https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Thalmus.png#/media/File:Thalmus.png
The thalamus also plays an important role in regulating states of sleep and wakefulness. Thalamic nuclei have strong reciprocal connections with the cerebral cortex, forming thalamo-cortico-thalamic circuits that are believed to be involved with consciousness.
The thalamus is functionally connected to the hippocampus  as part of the extended hippocampal system at the thalamic anterior nuclei  with respect to spatial memory and spatial sensory datum they are crucial for human episodic memory and rodent event memory .
Informatory link for the thalamus: http://neuroscience.uth.tmc.edu/s4/chapter01.html
In large mammals the cerebral cortex is folded, giving a much greater surface area in the confined volume of the skull. A fold or ridge in the cortex is termed a gyrus (plural gyri) and a groove or fissure is termed a sulcus (plural sulci).
The cerebral cortex is gray matter, consisting mainly of cell bodies (with astrocytes being the most abundant cell type in the cortex as well as the human brain as a whole) and capillaries. It contrasts with the underlying white matter, consisting mainly of the white myelinated sheaths of neuronal axons.
Neurons in various layers connect vertically to form small microcircuits, called cortical columns.
The cerebral cortex may be classified on the basis of gross topographical conventions into four lobes:
The cerebral cortex is connected to various subcortical structures such as the thalamus and the basal ganglia, sending information to them along efferent connections and receiving information from them via afferent connections. Most sensory information is routed to the cerebral cortex via the thalamus. Olfactory information, however, passes through the olfactory bulb to the olfactory cortex (piriform cortex).
The cortex is commonly described as comprising three parts: sensory, motor, and association areas.
In general, the two hemispheres receive information from the opposite (contralateral) side of the body. For example the right primary somatosensory cortex receives information from the left limbs, and the right visual cortex receives information from the left visual field.
The organization of sensory maps in the cortex reflects that of the corresponding sensing organ, in what is known as a topographic map. Neighboring points in the primary visual cortex, for example, correspond to neighboring points in the retina. This topographic map is called a retinotopic map. In the same way, there exists a tonotopic map in the primary auditory cortex and a somatotopic map in the primary sensory cortex.
This last topographic map of the body onto the posterior central gyrus has been illustrated as a deformed human representation, the somatosensory homunculus, where the size of different body parts reflects the relative density of their innervation. Areas with lots of sensory innervation, such as the fingertips and the lips, require more cortical area to process finer sensation.
The motor areas are located in both hemispheres of the cortex. They are shaped like a pair of headphones stretching from ear to ear. The motor areas are very closely related to the control of voluntary movements, especially fine fragmented movements performed by the hand. The right half of the motor area controls the left side of the body, and vice versa.
Association areas function to produce a meaningful perceptual experience of the world, enable us to interact effectively, and support abstract thinking and language. The parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes - all located in the posterior part of the cortex - integrate sensory information and information stored in memory. The frontal lobe or prefrontal association complex is involved in planning actions and movement, as well as abstract thought.
a. The striatum http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Striatum composed of:
i. the caudate nucleus http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caudate_nucleus
ii. the putamen http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Putamen
b. The ventral pallidum http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ventral_pallidum
c. The subthalamic nucleus http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Subthalamic_nucleus
d. The substantia nigra (black substance) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Substantia_nigra
Source: slide 6 of presentation found at the link http://www.slideshare.net/irmasuntoo/basal-ganglia-22802719
Source: slide 3 of presentation found at the link http://www.slideshare.net/rongon28us/1-basal-ganglia