Source Link: "Natural electromagnetic processes in the environment (I-IV), human EEG readings in comparison. Schumann oscillations (I) and the EEG a-rhythm, as well as locally conditioned fluctuations of the electric field (II) and the EEG d-rhythm, show a noticable similarity in their temporal variation. From König, 1979."
Via the HeartMath Institute: “Want to listen to the earth’s resonances? This three-minute audio file is data collected from GCI’s magnetic sensor in Boulder Creek. The resonances have been shifted up in frequency to an audible range.”
The content of this page complements the relevant sections from this HeartMath Institute page.
"Every second, lightning flashes some 50 times on Earth. Together these discharges coalesce and get stronger, creating electromagnetic waves circling around Earth, to create a beating pulse between the ground and the lower ionosphere, about 60 miles up in the atmosphere. This electromagnetic signature, known as Schumann Resonance, (...)"
Courtesy NASA to HeartMath Institute (Link)
1. Lightning is the primary source of Schumann waves
“On Earth, the lightning frequency is approximately 40–50 times a second.”
Notes based on the above Wikipedia link.
How does lightning occur?
In a cloud: Freezing creates ice crystals and wind induces its collisions with water; ice crystals tend to develop a positive charge, while a heavier, slushy mixture of ice and water (calledgraupel) develops a negative charge. A difference in electric potential between two points is created. The air acts as an insulator up to 4–30 kV/cm. If the potential between two points surpasses this value, an electrostatic discharge occurs and electricity is transferred from one point to the other.
From cloud to cloud: Similarly.
From cloud to ground: “As a thundercloud moves over the surface of the Earth, an equal electric charge, but of opposite polarity, is induced on the Earth's surface underneath the cloud.” An electrostatic discharge can occur as above.
3. A charged cavity is formed between the negatively charged ionosphere (ionized by solar radiation) and the earth ground (similar to a capacitator).
4. This cavity acts as a resonant cavity and a standing wave is formed “with a wavelength equal to the circumference of the Earth. "(...) signals are very weak at large distances from the lightning source, but the Earth–ionosphere waveguide behaves like a resonator at ELF frequencies and amplifies the spectral signals from lightning at the resonance frequencies ." The "lowest-frequency (and highest-intensity) mode of the Schumann resonance occurs at a frequency of approximately 7.83 Hz (…). The higher resonance modes are spaced at approximately 6.5 Hz intervals (…)."
Citing the HeartMath Institute:
"The similarity of the 7.8-hertz Earth resonance and human brainwave rhythms was quickly identified after the Schumann resonances were first measured, and early studies were able to demonstrate a correlation between these resonances and brain rhythms."
"Numerous studies conducted by the Halberg Chronobiology Center at the University of Minnesota along with other studies have since shown that there are important links between solar, Schumann and geomagnetic field line resonances and a wide range of human and animal health and wellness indicators."
"The Schumann resonances at 7.8, 14, 20, 26, 33, 39, and 45 Hz (21−23) are examples of natural oscillating electromagnetic fields of importance. It is possible that these resonances with their frequency predominantly at 7.8 Hz but also at 14-45 Hz, have played — and play — a role in the tuning of the spontaneous frequencies of the mammalian brain, where the frequency during relaxation is around 8 to 14 Hz, and during concentration 14-30 Hz."
(Question 5. Does ALL solar activity impact Earth? Why or why not?)
“Solar activity associated with Space Weather can be divided into four main components”: solar flares (bursts of radiation, photons), coronal mass ejections (large clouds of plasma and magnetic field that erupt from the sun), high-speed solar wind, and solar energetic particles.
“When a CME cloud plows through the solar wind, high velocity solar energetic particles can be produced and because they are charged, they must follow the magnetic field lines that pervade the space between the Sun and the Earth.”
(Question 7. What is a geomagnetic storm?)
“The Earth's magnetosphere is created by our magnetic field and protects us from most of the particles the sun emits. When a CME or high-speed stream arrives at Earth it buffets the magnetosphere. If the arriving solar magnetic field is directed southward it interacts strongly with the oppositely oriented magnetic field of the Earth. The Earth's magnetic field is then peeled open like an onion allowing energetic solar wind particles to stream down the field lines to hit the atmosphere over the poles. At the Earth's surface a magnetic storm is seen as a rapid drop in the Earth's magnetic field strength. This decrease lasts about 6 to 12 hours, after which the magnetic field gradually recovers over a period of several days.”
From NASA.gov "2012: Magnetic Pole Reversal Happens All The (Geologic) Time"
"The flow of liquid iron in Earth's core creates electric currents, which in turn create the magnetic field."
The above picture represents the geomagnetic field in the absence of the solar wind influence. The earth magnetic field is distorted by the solar wind as shown in the following picture (source). Because of the solar wind the side facing the sun (left) resembles a sphere/hemisphere while the opposite side looks elongated like a belt; the magnetic field is extended in the magnetotail. However near the earth surface the magnetic field is essentially symmetric. Earth's magnetotail is the primary source of the polar aurora.
"The Main Magnetic Field originates from a dynamo process in the fluid outer core of the Earth. It strongly dominates over the various other contributions to the geomagnetic field, accounting for over 95% of the field strength observed at the Earth's surface."
Other factors like the magnetized crystal rocks influence the remaining 5%. Here is the complete list from the above site.
"The primary contributions to the geomagnetic field are:
The HeartMath Institute notes: “Animals, including birds, can detect Earth’s magnetic field and use it to navigate during migration. It has been shown, for example, that cows and deer, when grazing, tend to align their bodies north-south in response to the earth’s magnetic field.”
Excerpts (in quotation marks) and notes:
If you observe a compass with a long needle under a microscope you will discover that it oscillates. From the analysis of this movement, a specific kind of waves was identified and measured. These are the Ultra Low Frequency Waves (ULF). “The international definition of this portion of the electromagnetic spectrum is any wave in the frequency band 1 mHz to 1 Hz (1000 sec – 1 sec period).”
They result from collisions/interactions of the solar wind with the magnetosphere.
“Classification of ULF Waves In 1963 an IAGA committee classified ULF waves using a system dependent on waveform and wave period [Jacobs et al., 1964]. Oscillations with quasi-sinusoidal waveform were called pulsations continuous (Pc). Those with waveforms that are more irregular were called pulsations irregular (Pi).”
The HeartMath institute notes “The frequencies of these field line resonances are in the same range as many of the rhythms found in human and animal cardiovascular and autonomic nervous-system functions.”