Physical Therapy


On the occasion of the following tweet a post on Physical Therapy is presented.




Chiropractic is a profession that focuses on how the body’s structure—mainly the spine—affects its functions



Below are the "Physical Therapy Modalities" as described in the electronic dictionary (controlled vocabulary theraurus) of the US National Library of Medicine which is termed Medical Subject Headings (abbreviated as MeSH). 


Manipulation, Chiropractic is considered a Muscoskeletal Manipulation that belongs in Complementary Therapies as shown in the second hierarchy below.


1st Hierarchy - Physical Therapy Modalities


  Physical Therapy Modalities [E02.779]        
  Animal Assisted Therapy [E02.779.124]  +      
  Drainage, Postural [E02.779.358]      
  Electric Stimulation Therapy [E02.779.468]  +      
  Exercise Movement Techniques [E02.779.474]  +      
  Exercise Therapy [E02.779.483]  +      
  Hydrotherapy [E02.779.492]  +      
    Musculoskeletal Manipulations [E02.779.867]      
        Kinesiology, Applied [E02.779.867.344]    
    Manipulation, Orthopedic [E02.779.867.433]    
    Manipulation, Osteopathic [E02.779.867.444]    
    Manipulation, Spinal [E02.779.867.466]    
    Motion Therapy, Continuous Passive [E02.779.867.761]    
    Therapy, Soft Tissue [E02.779.867.880]  +    
  Myofunctional Therapy [E02.779.933]



2nd Hierarchy - Complementary Therapies


 Complementary Therapies [E02.190]        
   Musculoskeletal Manipulations [E02.190.599]      
        Kinesiology, Applied [E02.190.599.186]    
    Manipulation, Chiropractic [E02.190.599.233]    
    Manipulation, Osteopathic [E02.190.599.280]    
    Therapy, Soft Tissue [E02.190.599.750]  +




3rd Hierarchy - Therapeutics


Therapeutics [E02]      
  Hyperthermia, Induced        
           Ammotherapy [E02.565.020]  
    Diathermy [E02.565.280]  
           Short-Wave Therapy [E02.565.280.853]
      Ultrasonic Therapy [E02.565.280.945]  +
    Steam Bath [E02.565.640]  
  Laser Therapy      
    Low-Level Light Therapy  


Diathermy: Therapeutic for muscle and joints (shoulder, neck, elbow, hip, knee) 

Sprains - Inflammation - Low back pain


Laser therapy:



Diathermy via the US FDA







Laser Therapy - Physiotherapy

HeNe laser 632.8 nm, GaAs laser 904 nm  

Excerpts from this presentation


Laser equipment is grouped into four FDA classes with simplified and well-differentiated safety procedures for each. Low power lasers used in treating sports injuries are categorized as Class I and II laser devices.


Class I or "exempt" lasers, are considered non-hazardous to the body.  
All invisible lasers with average power outputs of 1 mW or less are class I devices.  

Include the GaAs lasers with wavelengths from 820 to 910 nm.  


Class II, or "low-power" lasers are hazardous only if a viewer stares continuously into the source.  
Includes visible lasers that emit up to 1 mW average power, such as the HeNe laser.

HeNe (gas) lasers deliver a characteristic red beam with a wavelength of 632.8 nm.

Laser delivered in a continuous wave and has a direct penetration of 2 to 5 mm and indirect penetration of 10 to 15 mm.  


GaAs (semiconductor) lasers are invisible and have a wavelength of 904 nm  
Average power output of 0.4 milliwatts.  
Direct penetration of 1 to 2 cm and an indirect penetration to 5 cm.


PhysioTechnology the only manufacturer in the United States that currently produces low power HeNe and GaAs lasers.


Absorption of HeNe occurs within first 2-5 mm of soft tissue with an indirect effect of up to 8-10 mm.  

GaAs which has a longer wavelength directly absorbed at depths of 1-2 cm and has indirect effect up to 5 cm.
Better for treating deeper tissues.  


A resource on lasers:


@infobook tweet