#GreekRevolution #GreekIndependenceDay


A Spring revolution, the Greek revolution, was initiated on the Annunciation of Mary Day 


Inspired by the Enlightment/Lumières movement – Succeeded when an intellectual and popular movement engaged the help of the governments of Britain, France and Russia.


(Under the auspices of Mary |  Eυ+angel+ismos = Good+to announce/to deliver message+ism)



Image source



Excerpts from wikipedia

link https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greek_War_of_Independence


The Fall of Constantinople on 29 May 1453 and the subsequent fall of the successor states of the Byzantine Empire marked the end of Byzantine sovereignty. After that, the Ottoman Empire ruled the Balkans and Anatolia, with some exceptions.


Due to economic developments taking place both within and outside the Ottoman Empire, the 18th century witnessed the ascent of two merchant groups to prosperity: Greek sailors of several Aegean islands became affluent maritime merchants and (…) other groups became independent merchants and bankers after the treaty of Passarowitz. As commerce expanded in the Balkans, Greek became the area's 'lingua franca' and continental merchants homogenized through a process of assimilation to the Greek 'high culture' by the end of the century.[24]


They generated the wealth necessary to found schools, libraries and pay for young Greeks to study at the universities of Western Europe.[25] It was there that they came into contact with the radical ideas of the European Enlightenment, the French Revolution and romantic nationalism.[26] Educated and influential members of the large Greek diaspora, tried to transmit these ideas back to the Greeks, with the double aim of raising their educational level and simultaneously strengthening their national identity. This was achieved through the dissemination of books, pamphlets and other writings in Greek, in a process that has been described as the modern Greek Enlightenment (Greek: Διαφωτισμός).[26]


In the 18th and 19th century, as revolutionary nationalism grew across Europe—including the Balkans (due, in large part, to the influence of the French Revolution[27])—the Ottoman Empire's power declined and Greek nationalism began to assert itself.[28]



The most influential of the Greek writers and intellectuals was Rigas Feraios. Deeply influenced by the French Revolution, Rigas was the first who conceived and organized a comprehensive national movement aiming at the liberation of all Balkan nations—including the Turks of the region—and the creation of a "Balkan Republic".



Another influential Greek writer and intellectual was Adamantios Korais who witnessed the French Revolution (…) and saw the democracy that came out of it. He spent a lot of his time convincing wealthy Greeks to build schools and libraries to further the education of Greeks. He believed that a furthering in education would be necessary for the general welfare and prosperity of the people of Greece, as well as the country.


The Greek cause began to draw support not only from the large Greek merchant diaspora in both Western Europe and Russia, but also from Western European Philhellenes.[28] 



Feraios' martyrdom was to inspire three young Greek merchants: Nikolaos SkoufasEmmanuil Xanthos, and Athanasios Tsakalov. (…) who founded in 1814 the secret Filiki Eteria ("Friendly Society") in Odessa (Ukraine), an important center of the Greek mercantile diaspora.[32]




Ruins of ancient Greek colony Khersones, at the outskirts of Sevastopol, located a few hours from Odessa. Wikipedia



With the support of wealthy Greek exile communities in Britain and the United States and with the aid of sympathizers in Western Europe, they planned the rebellion.[33]



At the same time, the Great Powers, allied in the "Concert of Europe" in opposition to revolutions in the aftermath of Napoleon I of France, were preoccupied with revolts in Italy and Spain. It was in this context that the Greeks judged the time ripe for their own revolt.



Following years of negotiation, three Great Powers, Russia, Britain and France, decided to intervene in the conflict and each nation sent a navy to Greece. Following news that combined Ottoman–Egyptian fleets were going to attack the Greek island of Hydra, the allied fleet intercepted the Ottoman–Egyptian fleet at Navarino. The battle began after a tense week-long standoff, ending in the destruction of the Ottoman–Egyptian fleet. With the help of a French expeditionary force, the Greeks drove the Turks out of the Peloponnese and proceeded to the Ottoman controlled part of central Greece by 1828. As a result of years of negotiation, Greece was finally recognized as an independent nation in the Treaty of Constantinople of May 1832.


The Revolution is celebrated by the modern Greek state as a national day on 25 March.



Another example of byzantine art



@infobookcom tweet




Rôle de la France à la Révolution Grecque


#RévolutionGrecque et mobilisation française. Mouvement intellectuel engage gouvernements mots.revues.org/1348#article-1… pic.twitter.com/5uzIlI0gbi





"Victor Hugo se fait l’écho de l’enthousiasme qui naît bientôt autour de la cause grecque" slate.fr/story/103915/l… pic.twitter.com/4uuax0mAQY







"La #Grèce en Révolte" - #Delacroix et d'autres peintres français témoignent de la guerre d'indépendance des Grecs pic.twitter.com/7jj0Aqb3yn