Brain entrainment upon modulation of carrier waves with certain extremely low frequencies (ELF) 

(cf. hypothesis of ion resonance frequencies)


From window-effects of ion release to window-effects of ELF and ELF-modulated fields

The Bioelectromagnetics Society: “Adey and colleagues at the UCLA Laboratory of Environmental Neurobiology, includ­ing Suzanne Bawin, and Rochelle Gavalas-Medici, began to study whether it might be possible to use modulated radio-frequency fields as a means to probe brain function. In his 2002 interview, Adey recalled the question that led to the first studies with amplitude-modulated radio-frequency fields. “If we made a radio signal look like a brain wave, would it influ­ence behavior? We showed in cats very clearly, and monkeys to some extent, that you could make the brain wave pattern follow the modulation on the radio signal.”


Description of studies

Electromagnetic fields entrain EEG rhythms, alter neurotransmitter release and modulate behavioral states - Excerpt from

W. R. Adey: “They can modulate cell firing patterns (Korn and Faber 1979); entrain EEG rhythms in rabbits (Takashima et al. 1979), cats (Bawin et al. 1973) and monkeys (Gavalas et al. 1970); alter neurotransmitter release (Kaczmarek and Adey 1974); and modulate behavioral states (Gavalas-Medici and Day-Magdaleno 1976; Smith 1984; Wever 1975).“

Takashima et al. 1979

Bawin et al. 1973

Gavalas et al. 1970

Kaczmarek and Adey 1974

Excerpt from “Handbook of Biological Effects of Electromagnetic Fields” 
“The first reports of dependence of a biological effect of modulation frequency were by Bawin and collegues [56-58] who showed that weak VHF fields that are amplitude modulated at brain-wave frequencies influence spontaneous and conditioned electroencephalograph (EEG) patterns in the cat.”
“In a related experiment, Gavalas et al. [59] showed that the subjective estimate of a monkey of an interval between events was shortened by as much as 0.4 sec when exposed to a 7-Hz electric field at 7 V/m (peak-to-peak outside the head of the animal). Expanding on this finding, they later showed that, for irradiation at 7 Hz, the threshold was lower and the magnitude of the effect larger than at 45, 60, or 75 Hz [60].”
“Rabbits exposed to 1 to 10 MHz radiation (amplitude modulated at 15 Hz) for 2 hr/day over a period of several weeks showed changes in their EEG patterns (enhanced low frequency components and decreased higher frequency components). Modulation at lower (4 to 5 Hz) or higher (60 Hz) frequencies was not as effective [61]. This finding is reminiscent of an earlier report by Servantie et al [62] that a microwave signal illuminating an animal imparted onto the EEG of the animal a component that was the same as the pulsing frequency of the irradiating signal. However, since Servantie et al.[62] only investigated repetition rates of 500 and 600 Hz, their results cannot be used to support or reject the existence of a frequency "window".”
[56] Bawin S. M. 1972. Cat EEG and behavior in very high frequency electric fields amplitude-modulated at brain wave frequencies. Ph.D. Dissertation. University of California, Los Angeles, Calif.
[57] Bawin S.M., R. J. Gavalas-Medici, R. Adey. 1973. Effects of modulated VHF fields on specific brain rhythms in cats. Brain Res. 58: 365-384.
[59] Gavalas RJ, Walter DO, Hamer J, Adey WR. 1970 Effect of low-level, low-frequency electric fields on EEG and behavior in Macaca nemestrina. Brain Res.18(3):491-501.
Excerpt from "Biological Effects and Health Implications of Radiofrequency Radiation" - by J.C. Lin, S.M. Michaelson - Section "Electroencephalographic changes"
“Bawin et al. (1973) reported that electromagnetic energy at 147 MHz, amplitude modulated at brain wave frequencies (8 and 16 Hz), influenced spontaneous and conditioned EEG patterns in cats at 1 mW/ cm2. These amplitude-modulated 147-MHz fields induced changes only when the amplitude modulation frequency approached that of physiological bioelectric function rhythms; no effects were seen at modulation frequencies below 8 Hz or above 16 Hz.”
“Takashima et at (1979) exposed male rabbits to 1- to 10-Hz fields amplitude modulated at 14 to 16 Hz or 60 Hz for 2 to 3 hr (single exposure) or 4 to 6 weeks (chronic exposure).”

Excerpt from "Behavior and Brain Electrical Activity"- Chapter “The Influences of Impressed Electrical Fields at EEG Frequencies on Brain and Behavior” written by W. R. Adey - Effects of VHF fields on conditioned EEG patterns

“The first experiment was based on the following hypothesis. Different brain structures produce "bursts" of EEG rhythms that can be used as EEG "signatures" for that particular brain region”. Moreover, these signatures can be elicited as conditional responses to behavioral training (Fox and Rudell 1968; Sterman, Wyrwicka, and Clemente 1969; Delgado et al. 1970; Sterman, Howe, and Macdonald 1970; Fox and Ahn 1971). If the cats were trained to produce a particular burst in the presence of a VHF field modulated at the same frequency as the burst, then effects of the field might be detected during either acquisition or extinction of the learned response, or both.”
Another source for excerpt - restricted access chapter/book:
Excerpt from “Biological Effects of Radiofrequency Radiation” edited by J. A. Elder, D. F. Cahill - Book available from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
“Bawin et al (1973) exposed adult female cats (...) to 147-MHz fields amplitude modulated at frequencies ranging from 1 to 25 Hz at intensities of 1 mW/cm2 or less (SAR estimated about 0.015 W/Kg).
Five cats were trained (by operant behavioral reinforcement techniques) to increase the percentage of time during which specific brain waves were within a narrow frequency band specified by the experimenter.
Then reinforcement was discontinued for a series of sessions until the percentage of brain waves of the reinforced frequency returned to preconditioning operant levels.
During these extinction sessions, three of the cats were exposed to the RF radiation modulated at 4.5 Hz for one cat, 3 Hz for the second, and 14 Hz for the third. The modulation frequency was within the range reinforced for each cat. Irradiated cats required more sessions for the brain activity to return to preconditioning levels than nonirradiated cats.
Spectral analysis of the brain waves of irradiated cats showed a shift such that the predominant frequency centered around the modulation frequency of the RF radiation. No such spectra were seen in irradiated cats that had no behavioral training.
In the same study two other cats were reinforced by amplitude-modulated radiation. The production of specified frequencies of brain rhythms was followed by irradiation.
Increases in the number of bursts of the reinforced frequencies occurred, but the duration of these bursts did not increase. The number of bursts returned to preconditioning levels when the irradiation was discontinued.
The study is also described in the following reference but unfortunately the first section is missing. A related excerpt can be found in the first comment**. A following section is provided below.
Excerpt from "Behavior and Brain Electrical Activity"- Chapter “The Influences of Impressed Electrical Fields at EEG Frequencies on Brain and Behavior” written by W. R. Adey - Effects of VHF Fields on Spontaneous Transient EEG Rhythms “Two animals were used in this complementary study. Two different patterns occurring in two different brain locations were selected for each animal in preliminary testing sessions. Two mutually exclusive rhythms in one cat (14 Hz in nucleus centrum medianum and 10 Hz in presylvian gyrus) and two concurrent patterns (13 Hz in caudate nucleus and 4 Hz in centrum medianum) were selected for manipulation in the VHF fields.
The output of filters tuned to these frequencies was then used to trigger the VHF fields, amplitude-modulated at various frequencies, for 20 sec (Figure 6).
The occurrence of a second or third burst during the fields-on epochs recycled the chain of events, so that every occurrence was similarly reinforced. In this way the specificity of the modulation frequency could be tested.
The experimental results clearly indicated that the fields were acting as reinforcers, increasing the rate of occurrence of the spontaneous rhythms only when modulated at frequencies close to the biologically dominant frequency of the selected intrinsic EEG rhythmic episodes.
As seen in Figure 7, imposition of fields modulated at a frequency (3 Hz) different from the triggering one (10 Hz, sessions 7 and 8) dramatically decreased the 10-Hz.“ “In summary, all three monkeys in this low-frequency field study showed altered EEG power at 6 to 8 Hz in the hippocampus and less consistently in the amygdala and nucleus centrum medianum with 7-Hz fields.”



EM-induced neurotransmitter effects:



Electromagnetic fields and brain entrainment
“Effect of 7, 14 and 21 Hz modulated 450 MHz microwave radiation on human electroencephalographic rhythms”
Abstract: | PDF:

Abstract excerpt: “The microwave exposure modulated at 14 and 21 Hz enhanced the EEG power in the alpha and beta frequency bands, whereas no enhancement occurred during exposure to the modulation frequency of 7 Hz.”



“Frequency-specific responses in the human brain caused by electromagnetic fields”

1.5- and 10-Hz electromagnetic fields (EMFs) alter brain electrical activity at the frequency of the EMF during the time of stimulation.



Mechanical waves and brain entrainment

Air Force studies in the 1960s "on the vibration of man in the course of a space craft launch" conducted using a large shaker for 1 to 30 Hz revealed brain wave entrainement (driving) in the monkey at frequencies between about 11 and 15 Hz.




Ross Adey, prominent EM bioeffect researcher


Prof. Ross Adey M.D.: Director of the UCLA Space Biology Laboratory pursuing efforts to fulfill President Kennedy’s commitment to put a man on the moon in the 1960s - "His laboratory developed the technology for biotelemetry from space that allowed EEG recordings from astronauts Lovell and Borman showing the effects of weightlessness on brain function."


He conducted research on the effects of electromagnetic fields on biological systems including the brain and discovered bioactive frequency "windows". He had a dispute with Motorola concerning his results, as well as with the Air Force concerning the PAVE PAWS phased array Radar which had a pulsation frequency similar to the bioactive frequency his group had discovered (16 Hz).


Journal of Neurotherapy - "Neurofeedback and QEEG: The space-race..."



Ross Adey become a member of the National Academy of Sciences' committee formed in January 1976 to evaluate the possible biological effects of the ELF electric and magnetic fields that would be generated by the U.S. Navy's Project Seafarer for ELF submarine communications

Project Sanguine (1968), Project Seafarer (1975) and Austere ELF (1978) were proposals for submarine communications using ELF that preceded Project ELF (1981) which was implemented using two transmitters in Wisconsin and Michigan (transmitting at 76 Hz with alternative capability at 45 Hz). The U.S. Navy shut down the transmitters in 2004 to pursue VLF submarine communications.


A related excerpt is provided by the book of American author Paul Brodeur.




The Soviet "LIDA" ELF pulse generator 


Ross Adey speaks on the Soviet LIDA RF generator to CNN Special Assignment Correspondent Chuck DeCaro (U.S. Air Force Academy graduate, Special Forces officer, DOD consultant)
DeCaro: "In the Soviet Union, a radio frequency or RF device has been used for over 30 years to manipulate the moods of mental patients. It's called a LIDA machine. It radiates pulses of radio frequency energy as well as light, sound and heat. The pulse rate is in the extremely low frequency range between 0 and 100 pulses per seconds. Dr. Ross Adey is the top researcher at the Veterans Administration Hospital in Loma Linda California. He has been investigating backs of the LIDA machine."
DeCaro: "What the Soviets were using this machine for? "
Adey: "Well they don't use it anymore, we should be very clear that this is a machine which is regarded by them as as somewhat obsolete technology".
An interview follows with a scientist who did not want his identity revealed.
"The scientist who did not want his identity revealed is employed by the US government and has done secret RF weapons search. He believes the tests done with a lighter and similar machines prove that humans are susceptible to remote alterations of mood and awareness."
CNN Special Assignment (1985) "Weapons of War, Is there an RF Gap?" (Electromagnetic frequency weapons, RF weapons)



Article by Ross Adey on the LIDA generator

“There is a medical therapeutic device, known as the LIDA, developed in the Soviet Union and patented in this country. It is designed for the treatment of psychoneurotic illness and emotional disorders. It emits pulsed radio signals up to one tenth of a second long at rates up to two per second, with a maximum generator output of 40 to 80 watts. The instrument can also generate pulsed light, sound, and heat, and the four stimulus modalities can be delivered separately or in any desired combination. Reports of clinical tests in the U.S.S.R. in juveniles and adults suffering from emotional disorders are said to have been favorable.”



U.S. patent 3773049A : "Apparatus for the treatment of neuropsychic and somatic diseases with heat, light, sound and VHF electromagnetic radiation"



Associated Press article (1983) on the LIDA machine

“Soviet machine uses radio to calm patients” - “Soviets test radio waves as tranquilizer”


"A Soviet device that bombards brains with low-frequency radio waves may be a replacement for tranquilizers and their unwanted side effects, says a researcher, but its use on humans poses ethical and political questions.


The machine, known as the LIDA, is on loan to the Jerry L. Pettis Memorial Veterans Hospital through a medical exchange program between the Soviet Union and the United States. Hospital researchers have found in changes behaviour in animals.

"It looks as though instead of taking a valium when you want to relax yourself it would be possible to achieve a similar result, probably in a safer way, by the use of a radio field that will relax you" said Dr. Ross Adey, chief of research at the hospital.


The Lida's Russian-language manual shows it being used on a human in a clinical setting, Adey said. The manual says it is a "distant pulse treating apparatus" for psychological problems, including sleeplessness, hyper-tension and neurotic disturbances.


The device has not been approved for use with humans in this country, although the Russians have done so since at least 1960, Adey said.


Low frequency radio waves simulate the brain's own electromagnetic current and produce a trance-like state.


Adey said he put a cat in a box and turned on the LIDA.


"Within a matter of two or three minutes it is sitting there very quietly ... it stays almost as though it were transfixed" he said, adding that the animal remains uninterested in its surroundings for 20 to 30 minutes after the machine is turned off.


The machine generates 40 megahertz radio waves, which are slightly higher than the citizens band frequency. Designed using World War II technology, it has glass electron tubes instead of more modern transistors, Adey said.


During a testing session, the animals' brain waves, heart beat and respiration are measured. "The pattern of brain waves suggests that we (can) cause ... deep sleep as a result of these combined stimulations," he said.


The hospital's experiment with the machine has been under way for three months and should be completed within a year, Adey said.


The Lida may have been the forerunner of a device that is presently bombarding Europe and the United States with very powerful radio waves in the six to 30 megaherts shortwave range, Adey said. The Soviets say the waves are a radar system."




"The LIDA machine was made in the 1950's by the Soviets. The CIA purchased one through a Canadian front for Dr. Ross Adey, but didn't give him any funds to evaluate it. I provided those funds from my project in 1981".
"The Soviets included a picture with the device that showed an entire auditorium full of people asleep with the LIDA on the podium. The LIDA put out an electric field, a magnetic field, light, heat, and sound (of course light and heat are electromagnetic waves, but at a much higher frequency than the low frequencies of the electric and magnetic fields mentioned above).
Dr. Ross Adey "determined that the LIDA would put rabbits into a stupor at a distance and make cats go into REM."
"The purported purpose of the LIDA was for medical treatments; however, the North Koreans used it as a brain washing device during the Korean War. The big question is: what did they do with the technology? It could have been improved and/or made smaller. It is unlikely that they abandoned something that worked.
"Direct communication with Ross Adey: While he was testing the LIDA 4, an electrician was walking by and asked him where he got the "North Korean brain washing machine". Ross told him that is was a Russian medical device. "The guy said he had been brain-washed by a device like that when he was in a POW camp. They placed the vertical plates alongside his head and read questions and answers to him. He said he felt like he was in a dream. Later when the Red Cross came and asked questions, he responded with what had been read to him while under the influence of the device. He said he seemed to have no control over the answers.
"The LIDA is PATENTED IN THE US. Why? They are not sold in the US--the only one I know that exists is the one that was at Loma Linda Medical Center where Adey used to work. Eldon"
"Statement from Dr. Eldon Byrd, U.S. psychotronic researcher who funded Dr. Adey's work with the LIDA machine".
"Involuntary neuro-experimentation activist Cheryl Welsh, Davis CA, sent in this clipping from an article by Dr. Ross Adey but without complete bibliographic references": "Soviet investigators have also developed a therapeutic device utilizing low frequency square wave modulation of a radiofrequency field. This instrument known as the Lida was developed by L. Rabichev and his colleagues in Soviet Armenia, and is designed for "the treatment of neuropsychic and somatic disorders, such as neuroses, psychoses, insomnia, hypertension, stammering, bronchia asthma, and asthenic and reactive disturbances". It is covered by U.S. Patent # 3,773,049. In addition to the pulsed RF field, the device also delivers pulsed light, pulsed sound, and pulsed heat. Each stimulus train can be independently adjusted in intensity and frequency. The radiofrequency field has a nominal carrier frequency of 40 MHz and a maximum output of approximately 40 Watts. The E- field is applied to the patient on the sides of the neck through two disc electrodes approximately 10 cm in diameter. The electrodes are located at a distance of 2-4 cm from the skin.
[Eleanor White's comment: The fact that Dr. Ross Adey mentioned an "audience" being put to sleep by the LIDA suggests that the "E-field" electrodes may not play an essential role. The radio signal appears to be the primary cause of the sleep/trance effect.] Optimal repetition frequencies are said to lie in the range from 40 to 80 pulses per minute. Pulse duration is typically 0.2 sec. In an 8 year trial period, the instrument was tested on 740 patients, including adults and children. Postivive therapeutic effects were claimed in more..."




PAVE PAWS RADAR operating at frequencies close to those shown to induce maximal calcium efflux in the chick brain


Disputes in 1976-77 concerning the U.S. Air Force ballistic missile phased arrays of the East and West Coast which cover the entire Unites States (Beale near Sacramento CA and Cape Cod MA)

They operated with a carrier frequency and pulse repetition close to the those shown by Bawin and Adey to induce maximal calcium efflux in the chick brain (450 MHz modulated at 16 Hz). Additionally, similar modulation frequencies tend to induce brain entrainment. (cf. also post first comment on 450 MHz)

Air Force only did an environmental assessment and following resident mobilization, Congressmen involvement and legal action, it prepared an environmental impact statement (for EPA, federal agencies, public comment to be followed by revision process).

From book by Paul Brodeur (p.99)




More information at the section: "Solid State Phased Array Radar System" (SSPARS): U.S. Air Force Radar for missile warning and space surveillance