Ionosphere sensing and modification


Electron sensing (diagnostics) / electron characterization

GPS measurement of electron content 


ULF/ELF/VLF wave generation with ionospheric heaters: Creating low frequencies from high frequency transmissions


Ionosphere as plasma

Plasma frequency and cyclotron frequency for electrons and ions

Electron sensing  Measurement of electron content by GPS

Sensing with spectral broadening of atomic lines: Stark broadening, Doppler and resonance broadening

ULF/ELF/VLF generation with ionospheric heaters 

Polar Electrojet (PEJ) antenna or Ionospheric Current Drive (ICD)

Ionospheric heaters

HF transmitters 

Geomagnetic pulsations - ULF waves

Nervous system synchronization with geomagnetic field-line resonances