Biological responses upon modulation of carrier waves with certain extremely low frequencies (ELF)
Certain low frequencies induce strong biological responses either on their own or when used to modulate electromagnetic waves. This may be due to resonance.
In 1975, Bawin and Adey discovered the "calcium efflux effect" which consisted of the efflux of calcium ions from chick brains irradiated with 147 MHz modulated within a certain "window of frequencies" having a maximum at 16 Hz. Other biological responses were induced upon modulation of 450 MHz or 2.45 GHz carrier waves with 16 Hz.
An interpretation has been provided by the ion cyclotron hypothesis based on the fact that 16 Hz is the cyclotron resonance frequency of potassium.
In general, biological responses upon ELF and ELF-modulated fields may be interpreted based on ion resonance frequencies.
This observation was confirmed by Blackman et al (1979, 1980a,b), who used a number of different frequencies of amplitude modulation (3–30 Hz) and found that the effect was maximal at 16 Hz. This led to the view that modulation at or near 16 Hz might be critically important and a number of other studies using this frequency of amplitude modulation have also reported increases in the diffusion of calcium out of isolated fragments of nerve cells and cultured human neuroblastoma cells (see Table 5.1)" (Figure 2).
Figure 2: Table presenting studies related to calcium efflux and electromagnetic fields (Table 5.1 from http://bit.ly/IEGMP_Scientific_Evidence)
Certain low frequencies induce strong biological responses either on their own or when used to modulate electromagnetic waves. This may be due to resonance. An example is 16Hz, the ion cyclotron resonance frequency of potassium ions in the Earth's magnetic field, which is associated with calcium efflux and increased membrane permeability.
"The Cell Phone and the Cell" http://bit.ly/The_Cell_Phone_And_The_Cell
Electromagnetic radiation increases membrane permeability - "How weak fields remove calcium ions from membranes" - Ion cyclotron resonance
It is noted that "more detailed testing of ELF frequencies between 1 and 510 Hz have shown a series of frequency windows of effects, separated by no-effect frequencies (Figure 3) (Blackman CF).
Reference: “Bioengineering and Biophysical Aspects of Electromagnetic Fields” edited by Greenebaum B, Barnes F.S.
Chapter 9, “The Ion Cyclotron Resonance Hypothesis” authored by A.R. Liboff http://bit.ly/2vqJhiV
The Ion Cyclotron Resonance (ICR) Hypothesis was originally invoked (Liboff A.R 1985) to interpret a set of extraordinary results from the study of the calcium efflux system model system demonstrating a strong dependance on the orientation of the magnetic field (Blackman C.F. et al 1985). The original discovery of the calcium efflux effect (Bawin et al (1975) (pdf)) and following studies showed that high frequency electromagnetic fields which were amplitude modulated at a range of low frequencies of approximately 15 Hz, induced calcium efflux from chick brains. This frequency range termed a frequency "window" - cited frequently in literature - resembles a resonance curve (Fig. 9.2 http://bit.ly/38nu0h9). Blackman's results indicated that certain combinations of frequency and magnetic field strength had positive results such as 15 Hz and 38 mT or 30 Hz and 76 mT. This implied that the ratio of frequency to magnetic field strength is biologically important.
How could the ICR hypothesis explain these results? According to the ICR hypothesis, the physiological activity of cell signalling ions including, Ca2+, Mg2+, and K+, could be influenced when the ratio of applied frequency to the static magnetic field is equal to the ionic charge-to-mass ratio. This is expressed as:
ω / B = q / m (Equation 1)
where the radial frequency ω = 2πf, measured in radians per second, is used instead of the frequency f measured in hertz. In the above equation, B is the magnetic field strength measured in tesla, and q/m is the ratio of the ionic charge to mass, measured in coulombs per kilogram. For any given ionic species, the specific frequency that equals the product of B and q/m is called the cyclotronic frequency, ω(c).
The calculated charge to mass ratio (q/m) for certain ions involved in cell signaling are presented in the following table (Table 1).
Ion q/m(C/kg)10^-6 f/B (Hz/mT) f(Hz)[50μΤ]
H+ 95.76 15.241 762,1
Mg2+ 7.937 1.263 63,2
Ca2+ 4.814 0.766 38,3
Zn2+ 2.951 0.470 23,5
K+ 2.467 0.393 19,7
If we consider the Earth’s magnetic field strength which is approximately 50μT, we can appreciate that the cyclotronic frequencies, ω(c) for ions involved in cell signaling are in the ELF range. Specifically: Mg2+ (63,2 Hz), Ca2+ (38,3 Hz), Zn2+ (23,5 Hz), K+(19,7 Hz) (Figure 1 - 9.1 http://bit.ly/37oxqiu).
Figure 3: Ion cyclotronic frequencies for ions involved in cell signaling are in the ELF range (Figure 9.1 from http://bit.ly/37oxqiu)
In order to interpret Blackman’s results the following table is prepared (Table 2) with the combinations of frequency and magnetic field that gave a positive outcome, as well as the inclusion of an additional column corresponding to the theoretical charge to mass ratio (q/m) calculated from Equation 1.
f(Hz) B(μT) Outcome q/m(C/kg)
15 38 Yes 2.48 * 10^6
30 76 Yes 2.48 * 10^6
30 -76 Yes 2.48 * 10^6
30 25 Yes 7.54 * 10^6
30 -25 Yes 7.54 * 10^6
We can observe that the calculated charge to mass ratio for the first three cases is very close to the K+ ratio mentioned in Table 1 (2.467). This infers that it is the K+ ion that may be implicated in the biological outcome, despite the fact that the Ca2+ ion was measured in these experiments. Additional proof in favor of this observation is provided by the remaining positive outcomes, where the calculated charge to mass ratio is three times greater than that of the K+ ion. In cyclotron resonance, we observe a set of resonance frequencies, where the fundamental frequency or first harmonic at n=1 is given by equation 1 and the higher harmonic frequencies are restricted to the odd harmonics n=3,5,7(...). The ratios associated with positive outcomes of 30 Hz and +/-25 μΤ are three times larger than the others, suggesting that the K+ ion is interacting with the magnetic field as a result of the excitation of the third harmonic.
Further evidence of the role of the K+ ion is provided by the studies of (Blackman et al 1979) and the interpretation provided by McLeod and Liboff who derived the resonance signature for a charged particle as a function of frequency and obtained a very good fit of the data (Fig. 9.2 http://bit.ly/38nu0h9). This indicates involvement of ions in cyclotron resonance with a q/m ratio equal to that of the potassium ion.
An extensive list of studies which support the ICR hypothesis is cited in the book “Bioengineering and Biophysical Aspects of Electromagnetic Fields” edited by Greenebaum B, Barnes F.S. http://bit.ly/2vqJhiV, Chapter 9, “The Ion Cyclotron Resonance Hypothesis” written by A.R. Liboff.
a. Liboff, A.R., Geomagnetic cyclotron resonance in living cells, J. Biol. Phys., 13, 99–102, 1985.
b. Blackman, C.F., Benane, S.G., Rabinowitz, J.R., House, D.E., and Joines, W.T., A role for the magnetic field in the radiation-induced efflux of calcium ions from brain tissue in vitro,
Bioelectromagnetics, 6, 327–337, 1985.
Corresponding abstract (1984) Blackman, C.F. ; Benane, S.G. ; House, D.E.; Rabinowitz, J.R. 1984. The Bioelectromagnetics Society, abstract SA-4, 6th Annual Meeting, Atlanta, GA.
c. Bawin, S.M., Kazmarek, K.L., and Adey, W.R., Effects of modulated VHF fields on the central nervous system, Ann. NY Acad. Sci., 247, 74–81, 1975.
d. Blackman, C.F., Elder, J.A., Weil, C.M., Benane, S.G., Eichinger, D.C., and House, D.E., Induction of calcium-ion efflux from brain tissue by radiofrequency radiation and field strength,
Radio Sci., 14, 93–98, 1979.
(The above references a, b, c, d correspond to 4, 12, 13, 14 respectively from the book).
1. "Nuclear magnetic and cyclotronic resonances" at this link.
2. Blackman C.F., "Alterations in Calcium Ion Activity Caused by ELF and RF Electromagnetic Fields". Excerpt:
"More detailed testing of ELF frequencies between 1 and 510 Hz have shown a series of frequency windows of effects, separated by no-effect frequencies (Figure 3). It was subsequently shown that both the intensity (Figure 4) and the orientation of the earth's magnetic field during exposure can alter effects at specific frequencies. These results led to the development of ion resonance models and tests of their predictions (Blackman, 1985; Liboff, 1985)."
Prof. Dr. Dimitris Panagopoulos (University of Athens)
In recent years, he has been researching exclusively and intensively mobile phone radiation. He was summoned as an expert witness on the class action lawsuit in Washington DC. In September 2017, the Court of Appeals in Washington DC issued a favorable decision on the subject. The Professor was elected among the top 100 scientists for the year 2011 by the Cambridge University.
Effects of electromagnetic radiation - Effects of cell phones at this link.
Most important ions for neural signaling are Na, K, Cl, Ca2+
Among the first experiments which demonstrated biological responses at frequencies which satisfied magnetic resonance conditions (NMR conditions) for the ambient magnetic field were dielectrophoresis experiments with yeast cells which showed certain anomalies at the frequency of 2 KHz which corresponds to the proton (H+) magnetic resonance in the Earth's magnetic field (Pohl 1980).
Measurement of permittivity and dielectric loss of yeast cell suspensions showed sharp peaks upon NMR conditions for ions H, P, Na, Cl, and K and also upon ESR (Electron Spin Resonance) conditions (Jafary-Asl A.H. et al 1983, Aarholt E. et al). In other words, by using frequencies which satisfied conditions of magnetic resonance in the Earth's magnetic field, there were significant biological outcomes.
This is shown in the following composite figure from Aarholt E. et al data (related to Jafary-Asl A.H. et al 1983) which demonstrates dielectric constant and dielectric loss of yeast cell suspensions at the previously mentioned ion magnetic resonance frequencies for a magnetic field of 50μΤ. It is possible to calculate these frequencies by multiplying the gyromagnetic ratio of each ion with the magnetic field strength of 50μΤ. Please refer to the table of the figure below which indicates the following magnetic resonance frequencies at 50μΤ:
H (2129 Hz or 2.1 KHz), P (863 Hz), Na (563 Hz), Cl (209 Hz), K (99 Hz).
We can appreciate the peaks on conditions of magnetic resonance for these ions.
Figure 4: Composite figure from Aarholt E. et al (related to Jafary-Asl A.H. et al 1983) demonstrating dielectric constant and dielectric loss of live yeast cell suspensions (1.9 x 106 cells/ml) in a laboratory ambient field of 0.5 G (electric field strength of the order of 20 kV/m). Proton (hydrogen), phosphorus, sodium, chlorine and potassium NMR conditions.
Except for effects on dielectric permittivity and loss, the study reports results on enzyme-substrate reactions as well as generation time for cell growth (cf. DNA synthesis), decrease in cell size and increase in cell number without change in total mass.
The scientist who discovered the calcium efflux effect, Susanne Bawin from Adey's group, had previously shown that extremely weak VHF fields (147 MHz, 1 mW/cm2) amplitude-modulated at low frequencies (cf. "brain wave frequencies") strongly influenced spontaneous and conditioned EEG patterns in the cat (Bawin S thesis, 1972, Bawin S et al 1973).
Google spreasheet link: http://bit.ly/2S3mMWA
Combination of the following sources:
1. NMR Frequency Tables Bruker http://kodu.ut.ee/~laurit/AK2/NMR_tables_Bruker2012.pdf (page 8)
2. Wikipedia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gyromagnetic_ratio
3. Hyperphysics http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/Nuclear/nmr.html
It is suggested for convenience to hide the columns with the mention "Gyromagnetic ratio" referring to Wikipedia and Hyperphysics after having taken notice of them.
Note: The correct term according to IUPAC is "Magnetogyric ratio" as this refers to the ratio of the magnetic moment to the angular momentum http://bit.ly/2EbnnC7
Figure 5: NMR/ESR Magnetogyric ratios and frequencies