Sensing of Magnetic and Electric fields (Magnetometry and Electrometry)


Atomic Magnetometers



Atom Interferometers



Atomic antenna / Atomic radio



AC Stark effect or Autler–Townes effect

Splitting/spacing of spectral lines proportional to electric field amplitude
Atomic spectroscopy &
Electromagnetically Induced Transparency (EIT)

Magnetic Resonance Current Density Imaging (MRCDI)

(MR-based Magnetometry)


Remote Sensing - Spectral Imaging


Remote Sensing of Range (Distance, Position) and Velocity






Remote Sensing of Magnetic Fields - Remote Optical Magnetometry 


LGS tech

Laser/LIDAR remote magnetometry using mesospheric sodium and interrogation of Larmor precession

(proportional to magnetic field strength)

Faraday effect

Laser/LIDAR remote magnetometry using oxygen and the Faraday effect

(rotation of light polarization proportional to magnetic field strength)


Laser/LIDAR remote magnetometry for underwater objects using the Faraday effect and the Surface Magneto-Optical Kerr Effect (SMOKE)

Zeeman spectroscopy

Magnetography of Sun and other stars using Zeeman spectroscopy (splitting/spacing of magnetically sensitive spectroscopic lines)

Zeeman spectroscopy

Zeeman spectroscopy remote magnetometry using mesospheric oxygen and radiometers (ground or satellites)

Ionosphere sensing and modification


Electron sensing (diagnostics) / electron characterization

GPS measurement of electron content 


ULF/ELF/VLF wave generation with ionospheric heaters: Creating low frequencies from high frequency transmissions


Ionosphere as plasma

Plasma frequency and cyclotron frequency for electrons and ions

Electron sensing  Measurement of electron content by GPS

Sensing with spectral broadening of atomic lines: Stark broadening, Doppler and resonance broadening

ULF/ELF/VLF generation with ionospheric heaters 

Polar Electrojet (PEJ) antenna or Ionospheric Current Drive (ICD)

Ionospheric heaters

HF transmitters 

Geomagnetic pulsations - ULF waves

Nervous system synchronization with geomagnetic field-line resonances