Sensing of Magnetic and Electric fields (Magnetometry and Electrometry)


Atomic Magnetometers



Atom Interferometers



Atomic antenna / Atomic radio



AC Stark effect or Autler–Townes effect

Splitting/spacing of spectral lines proportional to electric field amplitude
Atomic spectroscopy &
Electromagnetically Induced Transparency (EIT)

Magnetic Resonance Current Density Imaging (MRCDI)

(MR-based Magnetometry)


Remote Sensing - Spectral Imaging


Remote Sensing of Range (Distance, Position) and Velocity






Remote Sensing of Magnetic Fields - Remote Optical Magnetometry 


LGS tech

Laser/LIDAR remote magnetometry using mesospheric sodium and interrogation of Larmor precession

(proportional to magnetic field strength)

Faraday effect

Laser/LIDAR remote magnetometry using oxygen and the Faraday effect

(rotation of light polarization proportional to magnetic field strength)


Laser/LIDAR remote magnetometry for underwater objects using the Faraday effect and the Surface Magneto-Optical Kerr Effect (SMOKE)

Zeeman spectroscopy

Magnetography of Sun and other stars using Zeeman spectroscopy (splitting/spacing of magnetically sensitive spectroscopic lines)

Zeeman spectroscopy

Zeeman spectroscopy remote magnetometry using mesospheric oxygen and radiometers (ground or satellites)

Ionosphere sensing and modification


Electron sensing (diagnostics) / electron characterization

GPS measurement of electron content 


ULF/ELF/VLF wave generation with ionospheric heaters: Creating low frequencies from high frequency transmissions


Ionosphere as plasma

Electron & ion plasma frequencies & cyclotron frequencies

GPS measurement of electron content

Electron number increase (e.g. during storms) generates GPS/communication system interference

Electron sensing/characterization (diagnostics)

Includes use of spectral broadening of atomic lines: Stark broadening, Doppler and resonance broadening

ULF/ELF/VLF generation with ionospheric heaters 

Polar Electrojet (PEJ) antenna or Ionospheric Current Drive (ICD)

Geomagnetic pulsations - ULF waves

Nervous system synchronization with geomagnetic field-line resonances

Molecule velocity measurement with LIDAR (Doppler-shift)

Ion and electron velocity measurement with ISR and LIDAR