Ionosphere modification - II


ULF/ELF/VLF wave generation with ionospheric heaters: Polar Electrojet (PEJ) antenna or Ionospheric Current Drive (ICD)


"ELF Generation 101" - Creating ELF from high frequency transmissions

Magnetospheric amplification of signals on highly active paths - ELF/VLF injection



Reference from IEEE:

References from Climate Viewer: "There are only two ways to heat the ionosphere and do ELF generation." "Creating ELF from high frequency transmissions"
Polar Electrojet (PEJ) heating
"High-latitude Ionospheric Heaters can use the Electrojet, a naturally occurring electrical current in the D/E Region (70-90 km) of the ionosphere, as both an amplifier and virtual antenna."
This PJ heating will produce ELF from 0.01 Hertz to 20,000 Hertz with a 2.8 do to 8 kilohertz peak efficiency.
Ionospheric Current Drive (ICD) heating
"Both High Latitude and Equatorial Ionospheric Heaters may use an alternate method to produce UFL/ELF waves that does not require the Electrojet. By heating the F layer (150–800 km) of the ionosphere, Magnetosonic (MS) waves are creating a secondary Alfven wave generator in the E Region. These Alfven waves travel upward and follow the Van-Allen belts, hopping back and forth producing" magnetosonic waves (0.1 Hz), Shear Alfven Waves (SAW) (2.5 Hz) and ULF/ELF waves up to 50-70 Hz [1].
Transmitted electromagnetic radiation travelling along the magnetic field lines of the Earth termed L-shells
(Note: A specific set of Earth's magnetic field lines are described with L-shells ( i.e. ellipsoids similar to those of Fig.1). "If you fire a shot off into space and you're up here at the North Pole, it's going to travel a long distance and come down and land at the South Pole." If firing from the Sura Ionospheric Heating Facility, which corresponds to an L-shell 2.5, landing will take place at a shorter distance, closer to the Equator. If firing from HAARP landing will occur at what is referred to as the "congugate point" found near the shore of Australia.
"Then some of it bounces off - and, you know, aggravates the heads of people all in this region - then bounces back into space. Now, once it makes it all the way back to HAARP, that's called a hop. Now why am I telling you this? Well, they have a thing out here in the middle of the ocean called the HAARP buoy and it's part of the one-hop-experiment." "It's a VLF buoy, so basically (at) the place where HAARP lands in the ocean, they put a receiver out there to listen for it. And that conjugate point is right off the shore of Australia." (Note: Stanford VLF buoy). "They're going to heat it way out here (points to last L-shell - Fig. 1). Now the MS (magnetosonic) waves, the very low frequency waves are what's creating the antenna now. They're not actually just powering the ionosphere - the polar electric jet - they're shooting it way out here into space; and these waves are traveling down and creating another antenna. This is very important and I know this is high-level but there are people who are going to understand this that need to hear it and they will do something about it I am sure."
There is a lot of debate on the internet about who's making a specific few Hertz tone.
"This proves beyond a shadow of a doubt that it is HAARP producing it, so guys over there on Tromsø, VLF, please get that updated".


Figure 1: ELF generation by PEJ and ICD (From Climate Viewer).




"What they're doing is creating a virtual antenna in the sky that radiates extremely low-frequency signals that travel worldwide and can be heard in the deepest depths of our oceans. This virtual antenna is called a Ionospheric Alfvén Resonator (IAR)."
Please scroll down to "ELF Generation 101" section of this link to follow the video above:
"In addition to creating an IAR, heating the ionosphere with high frequency radio waves will produce Alfvén waves and magnetosonic waves (ms waves). Now what are those? These are geomagnetic pulsations."
"When you move it up here (Fig. 1), a standing wave can occur along these magnetic field lines and compressive magnetohydrodynamic waves, magnetosonic waves come straight through".
"Magnetosonic are the lowest of low frequencies". Cf. fractions of a Hertz.
When they turn HAARP on, the spectrum at HAARP ULF "start"shows: "noise increase by 10 to 20 decibels between 0.7 to 10 Hertz"
Why do covert signals escape attention? Because, signal processing personnel would consider that this "new" noise represents background noise.




Geomagnetic pulsations or micropulsations (1 mHz to 5 Hz)

The ULF waves of Magnetospheric science

Magnetospheric science defines ULF (Ultra Low Frequency) waves differently from ITU: waves with a frequency that is lower than that of the plasma (ion and electron plasma frequency)


Geomagnetic pulsations are distinguished in continuous pulsations (Pc) and irregular pulsations (Pi)
They are modelled with Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations





Excerpts from "Studies of Geomagnetic Pulsations Using Magnetometer Data from the Champ Low-Earth-Orbit Satellite and Ground-Based Stations":
"The pulsations most commonly observed during local nighttime are Pi2 pulsations, which are impulsive, damped oscillations of the geomagnetic field in the frequency range 5-30 mHz and with amplitudes in the range 0.25-2.5 nT. The braking of high-speed ion flows in the near-Earth central plasma sheet, at the boundary between regions of dipolar and tail-like field, produce the substorm current wedge and compressional pulses, which lead to Pi2 pulsations at high and low latitudes respectively (*)."
"At high latitudes, Pi2 pulsations are shear Alfvèn waves associated with the “switch on” of the substorm current wedge (*) and are observed only close to local midnight. At low latitudes Pi2 pulsations are due to cavity mode resonances (*). At low latitude ground stations, they are observed at all local times at night and also often observed during local daytime (*)."
"The geomagnetic pulsations most commonly observed at low to middle latitude stations, such as Hermanus, during local daytime are Pc3 and Pc4 quasi-sinusoidal continuous pulsations. The frequency of oscillation is generally in the range 25-100 mHz, and amplitudes typically range from 0.1-1.0 nT."
"The dominant characteristics of these pulsations are consistent with those expected of field line resonances (FLRs), which are transverse standing Alfvén waves along geomagnetic field lines, that is, equivalent to the concept of a vibrating field line fixed between the ionospheres in opposite hemispheres."
"Baransky et al. (1985) initially proposed a method for the direct measurement of the eigenfrequency of magnetic field lines using ground-based magnetometer data. They demonstrated that either the difference or ratio of Pc3-4 pulsation amplitude spectra observed at two closely spaced meridianal ground stations can be used to determine the eigenfrequency associated with the field lines between the two stations."
"Waters et al. (1991) proposed a more reliable technique of determining the presence of a field line resonance (FLR) by the use of the cross-phase spectrum. With this method, the peak in the phase difference of the H-components from two closely spaced stations identifies the resonant frequency."



Geomagnetic pulsation monitors operated by the British Geological Survey


The British Geological Survey operates:


▪️ a broadband pulsation monitor (Figure)
▪️ a Pi1 monitor
▪️ a Pi2 monitor



"Synchronization of Human Autonomic Nervous System Rhythms with Geomagnetic Activity in Human Subjects"


Similar more recent paper from the same group of authors indicating that daily Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) activity responds to changes in geomagnetic and solar activity:


HRV is used as an indicator of ANS function and dynamics


Note: Mood changes and fatigue may be associated to geomagnetic pulsations





The initial approach for ELF/VLF generation: use of natural overhead current systems (cf. electrojet) as an ELF/VLF antenna

Magnetospheric amplification of signals on highly active paths - ELF/VLF injection

> HAARP transmitter

HAAPR is a 3-9 MHz transmitter. The effective frequency range of HAARP may be "from a few Hz to 30 kHz".
"HF carrier frequencies ranging from 3 to 9 MHz are available and ELF formats can be impressed upon the carrier using up to 100% sinusoidal amplitude modulation." "A wide range of ELF formats including pulses, frequency-time ramps and chirps are utilized". These are utilized as "probes" for the effects of the transmissions on magnetospheric plasma.
"The cartoon in Figure 2 illustrates the injection of HAARP ELF signals into the magnetosphere and the propagation of these signals to the conjugate southern hemisphere within field-aligned ducts."
The receivers of Stanford University are also shown.
Where does the HAARP signal access the magnetosphere i.e. what is the injection site? Most favorably directly above HAARP but also at considerable distances.
"the HAARP radiation pattern into the magnetosphere is believed to be characterized by a narrow (~30 km) “column” geometry" "which may reduce the chances of coupling energy" "into ducts that are not directly overhead."
The higher the latitude (closer to the Pole) the easier the access to the outer regions of the magnetosphere.
"Unlike the Tromsø heater, HAARP is located at (L ~4.9) on sub-auroral (closed) field lines allowing for hemisphere to hemisphere ducting" (i.e. the signal travels to the other hemisphere on ducts).
Please refer to figure
"The magnetometer readings suggest that the increased HAARP signal strength is due to an increase in electrojet intensity and not a change in direction" with the exception of the third maximum where other processes are involved.
"In most cases when echoes are observed, two parameters that can readily be determined are the magnetospheric propagation path and the associated equatorial cold plasma density."
For instance: "L shell of propagation (L ≃ 4.9)" (propagation along this L shell) "and equatorial electron density (N eq ≃ 280 cm^−3)."
Echo behavior of single pulse frequencies and frequency-time ramps (increases)
[Exp. 04/03] The pulse frequency of 1100 Hz provided an echo in contrast to 1225 Hz. 900 Hz provided a faint signal.
[Exp 27/02] Snake-ramp was amplified while individual frequencies in that range were not
"Magnetospheric amplification and triggering of emissions can be highly dependent on the slope of frequency-time ramps. The conventional understanding of the magnetospheric wave-particle interaction in the context of variable frequency waves is that spatial variations of the electron gyrofrequency match the Doppler-shifted wave frequency to first order [Helliwell, 1967]. More specifically, non-linear growth requires trapping of particles in the potential well of the input wave."
What led to the amplification of the 1110 Hz pulses?
(Note: observed bandwidth broadening to 50 Hz, high pitch angle α >60° electrons that likely drive the gyroresonance instability)
"The electrons involved in the amplification of the injected waves must have had energies ranging from a few tens to 100 keV with trapping wave amplitudes in the range 0.1–0.4 pT."


Figure 2: Image content from the publication




> Transmitter of Siple station, Antarctica


Transmitting a signal (e.g. VLF) from Antarctica and receiving it in Quebec amplified by 40 dB.
Attenuation of the signal is restored by amplification on its path (cf. magnetosphere).
Signal growth rates of 30-200 dB/s are measured. Upon saturation, variable frequencies are generated.
Injecting a signal for amplification in the magnetosphere: the notion of "magnetospheric injection"
A 45 Hz pattern appears in the signal. It has been proposed that power line radiation is amplified in the same way and that the line effect modifies the VLF emissions.
It should be possible to determine the input-output relationships for virtually any form of input signal.


R. A. Helliwell
Space, Telecommunications, and Radioscience Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, U.S.A.
Abstract: "The background of VLF wave-particle experiments from Siple Station, Antarctica, including wave-induced precipitation is briefly reviewed. Single frequency ducted signals that exceed a certain 'threshold' intensity are observed at the conjugate point (Roberval, Quebec) to be amplified 30-50 dB, with temporal growth rates of 30-200 dB/s. Following saturation, variable frequency emissions are triggered.
When a second signal is added to the first, with a frequency spacing Df<100 Hz, signal growth is reduced and sidebands are generated at frequencies separated from the carriers by integer multiples (up to seven) of Df. The sidebands are attributed to short emissions triggered by the beats between the two input carriers.
Mid-latitude magnetospheric hiss is crudely simulated by a sequence of 10 ms pulses whose frequencies are chosen randomly within a 400 Hz band. Results show that certain combinations of 10 ms pulses link together to form chorus-like elements, suggesting a common origin for hiss and chorus.
Under conditions of strong echoing, emissions may form into lines; a recent example, started by the Siple Station transmitter, exhibits interline spacings of about 45 Hz. These lines, called magnetospheric line radiation (MLR), vary slowly in frequency and show no simple connection to the harmonics of the Canadian power grid. Interline suppression may play a role in determining the spacing of MLR. lines and the absence of discrete triggered emissions."
Excerpts: "One of the best known conjugate phenomena is the echoing whistler-mode signal. An electromagnetic impulse from a lightning flash or a VLF transmitter enters the ionosphere and becomes trapped in one or more field aligned enhancements of ionization, called ducts, as depicted in Fig. 1. As the signal propagates the dispersive property of the anisotropic plasma causes the group velocity to vary with frequency. In the case of the lightning-impulse, the lowest frequencies travel more slowly than higher frequencies, causing the source impulse to be transformed into a musical tone of descending pitch upon arrival at the conjugate point in the opposite hemisphere."
"A whistler may echo many times between conjugate points before disappearing into the background noise (Helliwell, 1965)."
"Closely allied with whistlers are VLF emissions which travel along the same paths. These include chorus and hiss, and a variety of discrete emissions which may be triggered by whistlers, ground-based transmitters (e.g., Fig. 1) or other emissions. One of the remarkable features of the conjugate point echoing of wave trains is the fact that on occasion they show virtually no decrease in amplitude with time. This requires amplification along the path to restore losses occurring at the ends of the path. Such amplified and echoing VLF emissions are called periodic emissions (Helliwell, 1965). They can be started by whistlers or other VLF signals or may occur spontaneously within the plasma. They are thought to be an important cause of precipitation of energetic electrons in the enegry range from 0.5 keV to several hundred keV (Inan et al., 1982)."
"One especially interesting type of VLF emission is magnetospheric line radiation (MLR), which is often associated with harmonics of the power grids near the path end points. However, the connection between the line radiation and the power lines is not well understood. It has been proposed that power line radiation is amplified in the same way as narrowband signals from a ground-based transmitter and that these lines may exercise some modifying effect on both VLF emissions and the amplification of whistlers (Helliwell et al., 1975)."
"An important result from recent controlled experiments at Siple Station is the demonstration that natural noise can be simulated using existing equipment" i.e. phenomena of the magnetosphere "can eventually be simulated with controlled experiments". It should be possible therefore to experimentally determine in quantitative terms the input-output relationships for virtually any form of input signal."
"Conjugate point measurements of the type described here provide reproducible measurements of highly nonlinear wave-particle interactions and should be developed fully for the benefit of solar terrestrial physics. What is needed are more experiments at different latitudes where different parts of the magnetosphere plasma can be reached. One possibility is to establish facilities on the Antarctic continent at somewhat higher latitudes so as to obtain easier access to the outer regions of the magnetosphere."
References on powerlines: [A], [B]





Mobile ionospheric heaters


Rapid ionosphere reconfiguration (within minutes) with mobile microwave emitters (e.g. trailers)
"The Microwave Ionosphere Reconfiguration Ground-based Emitter (MIRAGE)"
"Ionosphere reconfiguration offers two major applications of interest to the military: bouncing radars off the ionosphere, also known as over-the-horizon radar, and the ability to jam signals from the Global Positioning Satellite system" (denying service to the enemy)
Mobile versions of ionospheric heaters allowing ionosphere modification within minutes
Includes important references from Sharon Weinberger (DefenseTech), NASA etc.
"Just over the Horizon" by Sharon Weinberger - Defense Technology International (2006)
"Someday the U.S. military could drive a trailer to a spot just beyond insurgent fighting and, within minutes, reconfigure part of the atmosphere, blocking an enemy's ability to receive satellite signals, even as U.S. troops are able to see into the area with radar."
"The work involves using plasma an ionized gas to reconfigure the ionosphere. Mirage would employ a microwave transmitter on the ground and a small rocket that shoots chaff into the air to produce about a liter of plasma at 60-100 km. (36- 60 mi.) in altitude, changing the number of electrons in a select area of the ionosphere to create a virtual barrier."





"Topside* sounders as mobile ionospheric heaters"

A sounder used to obtain electron density profiles can act as a mobile ionospheric heater - indications of plasma emission triggering
A topside sounder uses electromagnetic (EM) waves to obtain electron-density N(e) profiles. "These profiles are obtained from mathematical inversions of the frequency vs. delay-time ionospheric reflection traces. In addition to these em reflection traces, a number of narrowband intense signals are observed starting at zero delay times after the transmitted pulses. Some of these signals, termed plasma resonances, appear at characteristic frequencies of the ambient medium such as at the electron cyclotron frequency f(ce), the harmonics nf(ce), the electron plasma frequency f(pe) and the upper-hybrid frequency f(uh)(...). These signals have been attributed to the oblique echoes of sounder-generated electrostatic (es) waves. These resonances provide accurate in situ f(pe) and f(ce) values which, in turn, lead to accurate N(e) and [B] values where B is the ambient magnetic field."
*(sounding from above)
"Ionospheric topside sounders can be considered to act as mobile ionospheric heating facilities."
"New generation topside sounder"
"A satellite-based, swept-frequency, HF sounder can obtain electron density profiles on a global scale."
Topside Sounder products/services




Ionospheric heater map

by Climate Viewer
7 ionospheric heaters are marked (red symbol):
HAARP, SuperDARN Jicamarca (Lima, Perou - equator), EISCAT (Tromso), Sura, Arecibo, NMRF-MST (India - equator), Shigaraki MU (Japan)
Incoherent Scatter Radar (ISR) are marked with blue symbol
Indirect link: section "HAARP and the Sky Heaters Map"


Figure:  Ionospheric heater map (Climate Viewer)


Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN)

"Our international scientific radar network consists of 35 high frequency (HF) radars located in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres."
Check out our real-time-display tool.
Figure with indicative selection of available U.S. components (BKS, FHE, CVE): Blackstone (VA), Fort Hays East (KS), Christmas Valley East (OR)
List of all SuperDARN radars and institutions operating them (U.S., France, UK etc.)


Figure: SuperDARN real-time-display tool with indicative selection of available U.S. components (BKS, FHE, CVE). Blackstone (VA), Fort Hays East (KS), Christmas Valley East (OR)




Jicamarca Ionospheric Heater: An antenna of ~20.000 dipoles on an area of 10 soccer fields

Government of Perou, 2020-06-02: "Minister of the Environment visits the largest and most powerful ionospheric radar in the world for the 98th anniversary of the IGP (Instituto Geofísico del Perú)"
(59 years of operation of the transmitter)
Press release
"Today, Thursday, July 2, the Minister of the Environment, Fabiola Muñoz, visited the facilities of our Jicamarca Radio Observatory (ROJ) to learn about the largest and most powerful ionospheric radar in the world, of its kind. In this way, the Peruvian Geophysical Institute (IGP) begins its anniversary activities for its 98 years doing geophysical science and technological development for the benefit of the country."
"The Jicamarca Radio Observatory (JRO) located near Lima, Peru is the venue for a summer school that is funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF) and operated by the Geophysical Institute of Peru."
"JIREP is sponsored by the National Science Foundation and Cornell University with the local collaboration of Ciencia Internacional."

India and Japan ionospheric heaters


(1) "Mesosphere, Stratosphere and Troposphere" (MST) RADAR, National Atmospheric Research Laboratory of India
(2) MU RADAR, Shigaraki MU Observatory, Kyoto University, Japan
Gadanki, India Scientific facilities > MST Radar
"Radar operates at 53 MHz with a peak power of 2.5 MW." "It is possible to transmit both coded and un-coded pulses with pulse repetition frequency in the range of 62.5 Hz to 8 KHz, with a maximum duty of 2.5 %. Coded and un-coded pulse can be varied from 1 to 32 µs with a baud length of 1 µs providing a range resolution of 150 m. The radar operates under instruction from a PC based radar controller that executes an experiment according to the experimental specification set by the scientists."
"The MU radar uses VHF radio waves with a frequency of 46.5 MHz (1 MW peak output power)."




China Ionosphere RADAR

Fuke, Hainan province and Sanya, Hainan province
HCOPAR, "Hainan Coherent Scatter Phased Array Radar" (HCOPAR), Fuke, Hainan province, China
"Works together with the digisonde, a GPS receiver, and an all-sky airglow imager."
"The ionospheric irregularities can be observed by an ionosonde, a GPS receiver, a coherent scatter radar, as well as an incoherent scatter radar [8]–[10]. The coherent scatter radar is a relatively economical solution for observing the irregularities in both topside and bottomside F-layer all day long and estimating their drift velocity."
"Many atmospheric observation radars also own the ability to record the echoes scattered from the direction perpendicular to the geomagnetic field, such as the middle and upper atmosphere radar in Japan [11], the Gadanki radar in India [12], the Equatorial Atmosphere Radar in Indonesia [13], and the Jicamarca Unattended Long-term Investigations of the Ionosphere and Atmosphere radar located at the Jicamarca Radio Observatory near Lima, Perú [14]."
"The common features of these radars are the large antenna array and high peak power. Moreover, there are other VHF radars specialized for FAI observation. The 30-MHz coherent scatter ionospheric radar at the equatorial station at São Luís, Brazil, is operated with only 8-kW peak power."
The Sanya VHF radar and the Daejeon radar "are the products of the ATRAD company".
"Could this new Chinese radar system really be used to play God with the weather?"
"Sanya High-powered Incoherent Scatter Radar"
Article below argues that since U.S. submarines operate in the South China Sea, China cannot have an exclusive/dominating presence but does not preclude interference in submarine operations.
"The island where China is building the radar site also happens to be home to the country’s main naval base and houses a fleet of nuclear submarines."
"However, Dr Carter said incoherent scatter radars “tend to be on the high frequency end” and questioned the use of such a device in submarine operations."
“Having this incoherent scatter radio is going to be very beneficial for the whole field … We also don’t have any of them in the South East Asian region to study the equatorial ionosphere,” he said.
“Many of us inside the field are actually quite excited about the prospect of having an incoherent scatter radar facility placed in south East Asia.”