Ionospheric heater map
7 ionospheric heaters are marked (red symbol):
HAARP, SuperDARN Jicamarca (Lima, Perou - equator), EISCAT (Tromso), Sura, Arecibo, NMRF-MST (India - equator), Shigaraki MU (Japan)
Incoherent Scatter Radar (ISR) are marked with blue symbol
Figure: Ionospheric heater map (Climate
Arecibo ionospheric heater
https://physicstoday.scitation.org/doi/10.1063/PT.3.2341 (USAF-NRL, NSF)
Jicamarca Ionospheric Heater: An antenna of ~20.000 dipoles on an area of 10 soccer fields
Government of Perou, 2020-06-02: "Minister of the Environment visits the largest and most powerful ionospheric radar in the world for the 98th anniversary of the IGP (Instituto Geofísico del
(59 years of operation of the transmitter)
"Today, Thursday, July 2, the Minister of the Environment, Fabiola Muñoz, visited the facilities of our Jicamarca Radio Observatory (ROJ) to learn about the largest and most powerful ionospheric
radar in the world, of its kind. In this way, the Peruvian Geophysical Institute (IGP) begins its anniversary activities for its 98 years doing geophysical science and technological development for
the benefit of the country."
"The Jicamarca Radio Observatory (JRO) located near Lima, Peru is the venue for a summer school that is funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF) and operated by the Geophysical Institute
JICAMARCA INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH EXPERIENCE PROGRAM (JIREP)
"JIREP is sponsored by the National Science Foundation and Cornell University with the local collaboration of Ciencia Internacional."
India and Japan ionospheric heaters
(1) "Mesosphere, Stratosphere and Troposphere" (MST) RADAR, National Atmospheric Research Laboratory of India
(2) MU RADAR, Shigaraki MU Observatory, Kyoto University, Japan
"Radar operates at 53 MHz with a peak power of 2.5 MW." "It is possible to transmit both coded and un-coded pulses with pulse repetition frequency in the range of 62.5 Hz to 8 KHz, with a
maximum duty of 2.5 %. Coded and un-coded pulse can be varied from 1 to 32 µs with a baud length of 1 µs providing a range resolution of 150 m. The radar operates under instruction from a PC based
radar controller that executes an experiment according to the experimental specification set by the scientists."
"The MU radar uses VHF radio waves with a frequency of 46.5 MHz (1 MW peak output power)."
China Ionosphere RADAR
Fuke, Hainan province and Sanya, Hainan province
HCOPAR, "Hainan Coherent Scatter Phased Array Radar" (HCOPAR), Fuke, Hainan province, China
"Works together with the digisonde, a GPS receiver, and an all-sky airglow imager."
"The ionospheric irregularities can be observed by an ionosonde, a GPS receiver, a coherent scatter radar, as well as an incoherent scatter radar –. The
coherent scatter radar is a relatively economical solution for observing the irregularities in both topside and bottomside F-layer all day long and estimating their drift velocity."
"Many atmospheric observation radars also own the ability to record the echoes scattered from the direction perpendicular to the geomagnetic field, such as the
middle and upper atmosphere radar in Japan , the Gadanki radar in India , the Equatorial Atmosphere Radar in Indonesia , and the Jicamarca Unattended Long-term Investigations of the
Ionosphere and Atmosphere radar located at the Jicamarca Radio Observatory near Lima, Perú ."
"The common features of these radars are the large antenna array and high peak power. Moreover, there are other VHF radars specialized for FAI observation. The
30-MHz coherent scatter ionospheric radar at the equatorial station at São Luís, Brazil, is operated with only 8-kW peak power."
The Sanya VHF radar and the Daejeon radar "are the products of the ATRAD company".
"Could this new Chinese radar system really be used to play God with the weather?"
"Sanya High-powered Incoherent Scatter Radar"
Article below argues that since U.S. submarines operate in the South China Sea, China cannot have an exclusive/dominating presence but does not preclude interference
in submarine operations.
"The island where China is building the radar site also happens to be home to the country’s main naval base and houses a fleet of nuclear submarines."
"However, Dr Carter said incoherent scatter radars “tend to be on the high frequency end” and questioned the use of such a device in submarine operations."
“Having this incoherent scatter radio is going to be very beneficial for the whole field … We also don’t have any of them in the South East Asian region to study the
equatorial ionosphere,” he said.
“Many of us inside the field are actually quite excited about the prospect of having an incoherent scatter radar facility placed in south East Asia.”
Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN)
"Our international scientific radar network consists of 35 high frequency (HF) radars located in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres."
Check out our real-time-display tool.
Figure with indicative selection of available U.S. components (BKS, FHE, CVE): Blackstone (VA), Fort Hays East (KS), Christmas Valley East (OR)
List of all SuperDARN radars and institutions operating them (U.S., France, UK etc.)
Figure: SuperDARN real-time-display tool with indicative selection of available U.S. components (BKS, FHE, CVE). Blackstone (VA), Fort Hays East (KS), Christmas
Valley East (OR)
Mobile ionospheric heaters
Rapid ionosphere reconfiguration (within minutes) with mobile microwave emitters (e.g. trailers)
"The Microwave Ionosphere Reconfiguration Ground-based Emitter (MIRAGE)"
"Ionosphere reconfiguration offers two major applications of interest to the military: bouncing radars off the ionosphere, also known as over-the-horizon radar, and the ability to jam
signals from the Global Positioning Satellite system" (denying service to the enemy)
Mobile versions of ionospheric heaters allowing ionosphere modification within minutes
Includes important references from Sharon Weinberger (DefenseTech), NASA etc.
"Just over the Horizon" by Sharon Weinberger - Defense Technology International (2006)
"Someday the U.S. military could drive a trailer to a spot just beyond insurgent fighting and, within minutes, reconfigure part of the atmosphere, blocking an enemy's ability to receive
satellite signals, even as U.S. troops are able to see into the area with radar."
"The work involves using plasma an ionized gas to reconfigure the ionosphere. Mirage would employ a microwave transmitter on the ground and a small rocket that shoots chaff into the air to
produce about a liter of plasma at 60-100 km. (36- 60 mi.) in altitude, changing the number of electrons in a select area of the ionosphere to create a virtual barrier."
"Topside* sounders as mobile ionospheric heaters"
A sounder used to obtain electron density profiles can act as a mobile ionospheric heater - indications of plasma emission triggering
A topside sounder uses electromagnetic (EM) waves to obtain electron-density N(e) profiles. "These profiles are obtained from mathematical inversions of the frequency vs. delay-time ionospheric
reflection traces. In addition to these em reflection traces, a number of narrowband intense signals are observed starting at zero delay times after the transmitted pulses. Some of these signals,
termed plasma resonances, appear at characteristic frequencies of the ambient medium such as at the electron cyclotron frequency f(ce), the harmonics nf(ce), the electron plasma frequency f(pe) and
the upper-hybrid frequency f(uh)(...). These signals have been attributed to the oblique echoes of sounder-generated electrostatic (es) waves. These resonances provide accurate in situ f(pe) and
f(ce) values which, in turn, lead to accurate N(e) and [B] values where B is the ambient magnetic field."
"Ionospheric topside sounders can be considered to act as mobile ionospheric heating facilities."
NASA TOPSIDE SOUNDER PROGRAM
"New generation topside sounder"
"A satellite-based, swept-frequency, HF sounder can obtain electron density profiles on a global scale."
Topside Sounder products/services
Figure 2: Image content from the publication
> Transmitter of Siple station, Antarctica
Transmitting a signal (e.g. VLF) from Antarctica and receiving it in Quebec amplified by 40 dB.
Attenuation of the signal is restored by amplification on its path (cf. magnetosphere).
Signal growth rates of 30-200 dB/s are measured. Upon saturation, variable frequencies are generated.
Injecting a signal for amplification in the magnetosphere: the notion of "magnetospheric injection"
A 45 Hz pattern appears in the signal. It has been proposed that power line radiation is amplified in the same way and that the line
effect modifies the VLF emissions.
It should be possible to determine the input-output relationships for virtually any form of input signal.
"VLF WAVE INJECTION EXPERIMENTS FROM SIPLE STATION, ANTARCTICA"
Space, Telecommunications, and Radioscience Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, U.S.A.
Abstract: "The background of VLF wave-particle experiments from Siple Station, Antarctica, including wave-induced precipitation is briefly reviewed. Single frequency ducted signals that exceed a
certain 'threshold' intensity are observed at the conjugate point (Roberval, Quebec) to be amplified 30-50 dB, with temporal growth rates of 30-200 dB/s. Following saturation, variable frequency
emissions are triggered.
When a second signal is added to the first, with a frequency spacing Df<100 Hz, signal growth is reduced and sidebands are generated at frequencies separated from the carriers by integer
multiples (up to seven) of Df. The sidebands are attributed to short emissions triggered by the beats between the two input carriers.
Mid-latitude magnetospheric hiss is crudely simulated by a sequence of 10 ms pulses whose frequencies are chosen randomly within a 400 Hz band. Results show that certain combinations of 10 ms
pulses link together to form chorus-like elements, suggesting a common origin for hiss and chorus.
Under conditions of strong echoing, emissions may form into lines; a recent example, started by the Siple Station transmitter, exhibits interline spacings of about 45 Hz. These lines, called
magnetospheric line radiation (MLR), vary slowly in frequency and show no simple connection to the harmonics of the Canadian power grid. Interline suppression may play a role in determining the
spacing of MLR. lines and the absence of discrete triggered emissions."
Excerpts: "One of the best known conjugate phenomena is the echoing whistler-mode signal. An electromagnetic impulse from a lightning flash or a VLF transmitter enters the ionosphere and becomes
trapped in one or more field aligned enhancements of ionization, called ducts, as depicted in Fig. 1. As the signal propagates the dispersive property of the anisotropic plasma causes the group
velocity to vary with frequency. In the case of the lightning-impulse, the lowest frequencies travel more slowly than higher frequencies, causing the source impulse to be transformed into a musical
tone of descending pitch upon arrival at the conjugate point in the opposite hemisphere."
"A whistler may echo many times between conjugate points before disappearing into the background noise (Helliwell, 1965)."
"Closely allied with whistlers are VLF emissions which travel along the same paths. These include chorus and hiss, and a variety of discrete emissions which may be triggered by whistlers,
ground-based transmitters (e.g., Fig. 1) or other emissions. One of the remarkable features of the conjugate point echoing of wave trains is the fact that on occasion they show virtually no decrease
in amplitude with time. This requires amplification along the path to restore losses occurring at the ends of the path. Such amplified and echoing VLF emissions are called periodic emissions
(Helliwell, 1965). They can be started by whistlers or other VLF signals or may occur spontaneously within the plasma. They are thought to be an important cause of precipitation of energetic
electrons in the enegry range from 0.5 keV to several hundred keV (Inan et al., 1982)."
"One especially interesting type of VLF emission is magnetospheric line radiation (MLR), which is often associated with harmonics of the power grids near the path end points. However, the
connection between the line radiation and the power lines is not well understood. It has been proposed that power line radiation is amplified in the same way as narrowband signals from a ground-based
transmitter and that these lines may exercise some modifying effect on both VLF emissions and the amplification of whistlers (Helliwell et al., 1975)."
"An important result from recent controlled experiments at Siple Station is the demonstration that natural noise can be simulated using existing equipment" i.e. phenomena of the magnetosphere
"can eventually be simulated with controlled experiments". It should be possible therefore to experimentally determine in quantitative terms the input-output relationships for virtually any form of
"Conjugate point measurements of the type described here provide reproducible measurements of highly nonlinear wave-particle interactions and should be developed fully for the benefit of solar
terrestrial physics. What is needed are more experiments at different latitudes where different parts of the magnetosphere plasma can be reached. One possibility is to establish facilities on the
Antarctic continent at somewhat higher latitudes so as to obtain easier access to the outer regions of the magnetosphere."
References on powerlines: [A