"Disney camera crews accompany the U.S. South Polar Expedition to Antarctica. "Operation Deepfreeze" is the second of three Disneyland episodes commemorating the US-Antarctic participation in the International Geophysical Year of 1956. Like the earlier Antarctica, Past and Present", this installment details the activities of Navy Task Force 43, with narrator Winston Hibler detailing the 43rd's latest scientific findings at the South Pole. These two episodes, combined with "Antartica--To the South Pole for Science" would be released theatricallly in 1958 as the Disney featurette "Seven Cities of Antartica".
There are three U.S. bases in Antarctica: McMurdo Station, Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station and Palmer station
Nature reported in 2013 that Lockheed Martin was the contractor that run the US bases for the NSF.
(To avoid any misunderstanding, the article refers to the approximately two-week U.S. governement shutdown of 2013)
McMurdo was powered from 1962 to 1972 by a nuclear reactor and it is the biggest settlement on Antarctica, with a population of about 1,200 during the summer.
Picture from the first reference:
The Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station is on the Geographic South Pole. The original station was built by the Navy in 1956 to serve the scientific goals of the International Geophysical Year, an international effort to study the geophysics of the poles of the Earth.
The Palmer Station (approximately 40 people) hosts a radio receiver that studies lightning over the Western Hemisphere. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Palmer_Station
"7 Obscure, Remote and Super-Geeky Military Bases"
"Along the frigid northwestern coast of Greenland lies one of the U.S. military's most isolated bases, and home to one of the Pentagon's primary tools for keeping an eye out for intercontinental ballistic missile launches: a giant phased array radar. Called the Ballistic Missile Early Warning System (BMEWS) at Thule Air Base, the radar works by blasting a constant beam of radio waves off the ionosphere, instantly detecting any object flying over the North Pole once it crosses the horizon."
Note the incident at the Dugway base which was locked down for 12 hours when a vial (1/4 of teaspoon) of nerve agent VX was reported missing. (The vial was found later at the base).
“Apparently, the particles that slammed into the ionosphere to paint the aurora borealis also energized enough atoms to head spaceward. (The same is true of the south pole where DE-1 made similar observations.)”
“In 1987, Chappell and the RIMS team published a paper describing the polar ion fountain and described the ionosphere as a "fully adequate source of material for the magnetosphere."
That means that scientists did not need to look to the solar wind to fill the magnetosphere. Earth, they contended, does a good job of supplying all the materials.”
“Starting with the discovery of the Van Allen radiation belts by the first U.S. satellite in 1958, scientists have known that the Earth is surrounded by a cloud of electrified gas. This cloud, called the magnetosphere, is constrained by Earth's magnetic field, compressed by the solar wind to within about 100,000 km of the Earth on the sunward side, and drawn out by the solar wind to more than a million km on the night side.”
Plasma Fountain: "This figure depicts the oxygen, helium, and hydrogen ions that gush into space from regions near the Earth's poles. The faint yellow gas shown above the north pole represents gas lost from Earth into space; the green gas is the aurora borealis-or plasma energy pouring back into the atmosphere. Figure credit: NASA" https://pwg.gsfc.nasa.gov/istp/news/9812/solar1.html
“The plasma clouds, or balls of plasma, are being studied for use as artificial mirrors at altitudes 50 kilometers below the natural ionosphere and are to be used for reflection of HF radar and communications signals.”
“The NRL group succeeded in producing artificial plasma clouds with densities exceeding 9 x 10^5 electrons cm^3 using HAARP transmission at the sixth harmonic of the electron cyclotron frequency.”
“This frequency near 1.44 MHz is the rate that electrons gyrate around the Earth's magnetic field.”
"The artificial plasma clouds are detected with HF radio soundings and backscatter, ultrahigh frequency (UHF) radar backscatter, and optical imaging systems. Ground measurements of stimulated electromagnetic emissions provide evidence of the strength and frequency for the electrostatic waves that accelerated ambient electrons to ionizing velocities."